How To Edit Linux Host File ??


Changing Hosts File On Linux Systems ::

If you have Linux PCs on your home network and want to access your Wikidot install, you need to edit your hosts file to include the specific site(s) you want to access. You’ll need to know the internal IP address of your Wikidot server ( is used in the example below). On Linux PCs, the hosts file is located in the /etc/ folder. The file name is simply hosts (no file extension). You can edit the file using gedit, nano or any other text editor. localhost

# add entries for your local wikidot install
# here's some examples:
# main wikidot sites after initial install
# new sites you create
# new tempaltes you create
# for https (this may not be necessary)

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts


  • Edit the hosts file on your system. The hosts file is usually found in

  • Add this entry to the Hosts file:
  • Now make sure this file is used for host name lookups. This is done in two files. First is:

    This file should have at least the line shown below:

    order hosts,bind

    That has host lookups use the hosts file before doing a DNS query with bind.

  • The next file is:

    Recent tests indicate that this file is required in order for the pserver to use the entry in /etc/hosts. The nsswitch.conf file should have this line for the hosts configuration:

    hosts:      files nisplus nis dns

    There will probably already be a similar line in your version of this file. Just make sure “files” comes before whatever other methods are listed.

  • There is no need to reboot your system. Just restart your palace pservers.
  • Start up your palace.
  • It should now “register” with the Live Directory at

    NOTE: The above configuration instructions were tested with a linux 4.5.1 Palace server, and should also work with the linux 4.4.1 server. The 4.3.2 linux server did not respond to the above configuration when tested. Older versions were not tested Though It will Work With All.

Removing Red Hat Password In Grub Loader !!


This Post is for All Red hat Linux Distribution users, Who Have Lost Thier Root  password or Who Want Privileged Access For a Physically Accessible System !!

The Scenario is That you don’t know the root password. ::

So Here We Begin

To Remove root password in Red Hat follow these instructions ::

When System Successfully boot, it will ask for username and password. But you don’t know the root’s password. To change the root password you need to boot the system into single user mode. You can pass the some of the important kernel arguments from the boot loader if your target system’s Boot loader is unprotected.

Firstly Reboot system with alt + ctrl + del key combinations
Press space bar on boot loader screen

remove root password

This will drop you in OS selection screen
Select linux (If you have multibooting then select linux)

From grub boot loader screen select kernel parameter line and press “E”

remove root password

Select the JLine starting from kernel /vmlinuz…
remove root password in linux


In kernel editing mode press space bar and write s in the end of line just after the rhgb quiet and press enter key that will bring in grub bootloader screen
remove root password

On grub boot loader screen press b

remove root password in linux


This change will tell to boot system in single user mode.
After loading essential modal kernel will drop in rescue mode with root prompt
remove root password


now run passwd command to reset root password
and init 5 command to run system in graphic mode or you can just reboot system to on its default run level
remove root password

++++++++++++++++++By Ankit Pandey +++++++++++++++++++++

Top Linux Packages For Desktop Enhancement ??

                                                                                                                                                                                      By ANKIT PANDEYAnkit pandey

Hello Linux Users !!

Here is a list of various linux packages For Different Distributions of Linux . Firstly  The Must Download Packages after your Fresh Install::

Must Have Linux Enhancements After Fresh Linux Install :

1:      Compiz [.deb]

Compiz is to the Linux desktop as HiDef is to the world of television. Is it necessary? Not at all. Will it enhance your experience? Absolutely. Compiz is a compositing window manager that adds tons of functionality to the desktop — from the stellar Desktop Cube to the various window switchers and everything in between, on top, on bottom, and around the corner. If you haven’t experienced Compiz, you have no idea what the PC desktop can really do.

2:     Screenlets [.deb]


Screenlets are tiny applications just as Windows Widgets that live on your desktop and provide extra functionality. Some of these applets do little and some do quite a bit. My personal favorites are the ring sensors (various sensors for your PC) and CopyStack (a stack of clipboards that allow you to select from your clipboard history as well as drag and drop a “page” of your clipboard onto a document)and  The TImer screenlet With Alarm Function.

Install latest release Of Screenlets for Linux

 In terminal type

#sudo apt-add-repository ppa:screenlets/ppa
#sudo apt-get update
#sudo apt-get install screenlets
  • The general way of installing screenlets from terminal is
    #sudo apt-get install <name_of_the_package>
  • Or just add to your software sources

3:     Emerald [.deb]

Emerald is a window decorator written for the Compiz compositing window manager . It’s just like WIndows Theme Manager. This window decorator allows you to extend the look and feel of the Compiz window manager out to the borders of your windows. Why have such a cool looking/acting desktop when your window decorator is the boring old default? You can also use this decorator to fool your users into thinking they’re using Windows 7. It will take a bit of work, but it’s possible.

4:     Cairo – Dock [Open GL]   [.deb]

best ubuntu applications

If you like the OS X dock, you will love Cairo. This handy dockbar lets you add plenty of launchers and applets, as well as giving you the option of running with OpenGL effects. It’s theme-able, clean, smooth running, and much more stable than some of the other available docks.

To Install Cairo Dock , Just type The following in Your Terminal ::

#apt-get install cairo-dock       //for Ubuntu

$aptitude cair0-dock                 //for Debian

#yum install cairo-dock           //for Fedora

5:     Top Shelf  [.deb]

Top Shelf is a great little GNOME panel applet that gives you quick access to files you include in the “shelf.” With this tool, you can take related files (from completely different directories), add them to the applet, and have immediate access to either the file or the containing folder. It’s a great way to work on a project where files are coming from different locations and you want quick access to all of them.

6:     Tomboy Notes  [.deb]

Tomboy Notes is a simple note-taking applet that resides in the GNOME panel. Tomboy gives you instant access to all your notes via a table of contents and uses a WikiWiki-like linking system so notes can easily refer to one another. The development team is also working on a system that will allow Tomboy to interact with ALL desktop objects, so notes will not be limited to text or links.

7:     KDE Plasmoids [.deb]

KDE Plasmoids are small widgets that live on the KDE desktop. Many people argued that KDE 4.x was going to fail and that the plasmoids were not the way to go. However, this doesn’t seem to be the case, as numerous plasmoids actually enhance your desktop and your work. Some of my favorite Plasmoids are Twitter Microblog, Superkaramba, and File Watcher.

8:     GNOME Do [.deb]

GNOME Do is one of those tools you just have to experience. It allows you to search all of the files on your desktop machine and then perform useful actions on the results. This tool also has plenty of plug-ins that allow you to send emails, files, IMs, Twitter and Facebook updates, and much more. If it can be done, GNOME Do can do it.

9:     Guake Terminal [.deb]

Guake Terminal is one of the coolest additions to your terminal arsenal you will find. I do still use the terminal a lot (I’m old school, so I like the command line), and I like to have a terminal that’s not in the way. Guake is a drop-down style terminal you open and close by hitting [F12]. The terminal simply drops down from the top of your desktop and then rolls back up when you are done. It’s out of the way, quick to use, and will have you running commands faster than you can say grep! To Install online ::

As Guake is already available on different Linux distributions.


#yum install guake


#apt-get install guake


#emerge -av guake

10:     VLC -Media Player [.deb]

VLC – Media player Is One of the best media players out there. Not only does it play a variety of file formats you can also do a lot more with it, as this ANKIT PANDEY would no doubt show you. The this Ubuntu application And Can be Downloaded From Ubuntu Sofware Centre.

11:      Cheese [.deb]

best ubuntu applications

Cheese is a software for your webcam. It allows you to use your webcam to record videos and take photos. What makes it interesting are the different types of effects that you can play with while clicking photos. It gives you live previews of the photo with the effect applied. Very cool.

12:      Google Chrome [.deb]

Yes, Ubuntu And Other Distributions ships with Firefox and to some Firefox is good enough, but Google Chrome is definitely the faster of the two and a good choice for an alternate browser if not the primary browser. It is not uncommon to have more than one browser on a computer.

Ubuntu 10.4 applications

Installing Google Chrome is easy, head on over to the Google Chrome Page, click on the bigGet Chrome button, choose the 32-bit or the 64-bit deb package depending upon your computer, when the download completes double click to install Chrome. Google quietly adds its repositories to software sources so that you can get automatic updates.

12:      GIMP [.tar.bz2]


LINUX Distributions no longer installs GIMP out of the box. They say the GIMP is aimed at intermediate to advanced users, and not everyone’s cup of tea. While that makes sense, I think it is too useful a software to not have on your computer.

Installation of this Debian And ubuntu application is easy – you can use the new Ubuntu Software Center (Applications > Ubuntu Software Center), search for The GIMP and click install or type in terminal ::

“quicksudoapt-get install gimp.”

Ubuntu 10.4 applications

You can also install additional GIMP plugins and brushes while you online.

Ubuntu, Debian

Ubuntu or Debian users can simply run “apt-get install gimp “to get the latest stable release of GIMP. Ubuntu users can also install GIMP from Software Centre.


SUSE users can install GIMP by running yast -i gimp or zypper in gimp, depending on the distribution version.


Similarly to the above, Fedora users can install the latest stable GIMP by running yum install gimp.


Mandriva Linux users can install the latest stable GIMP by running urpmi gimp.


+++++++++++=BY=+++=ANKIT PANDEY=+++

How do I create create a new Linux User account ??

How do I create create a new Linux user account ?

What are command line options for adding a user?

To create a new user account under any Linux distribution use the command called “useradd” .  The system administrator is responsible for creating account. Login as root user (or use sudo command).

useradd Command Syntax

# useradd [options] {username}

Depending on command line options, the useradd command will update system files (/etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file with password) and may also create the new user’s home directory and copy initial files.

Linux add a New user “test”

Type the command as follows:

#useradd test
Setting a password for test:

#passwd test
Without password user account will be in locked status. To unlock the account, you need to use above passwd command. Use passwd command to assign a password.

Set account disable date

You can set date for the account to be disabled in the format YYYY-MM-DD with -e option while creating account itself:
#useradd -e {yyyy-mm-dd} {username}
#useradd -e 2008-12-31 test

Set default password expiry

The -f {days} option set number of days after the password expires until the account is disabled. (If 0 is specified, the account is disabled immediately after the password expires. If -1 is specified, the account is not be disabled after the password expires.)
useradd -f {days} {username}
useradd -e 2009-12-31 -f 30 test

How to Add User In Sudoer’s list ??

How to add a user to the sudoer’s list  ?

  That’s A very common question For a new linux user for overcoming the prblm of restricted access by root.The list of users who hav root access is mentioned in /etc/sudoer file in root direcory. Adding a user to the sudoers list on a fully installed Linux system such as Debian is only possible via the command visudo. Users in the sudoers list are allowed the root privileges to run commands and open files as the root user. This post will help you to add your user in sudoer list by using VISUDO editor.


How to add a user to the sudoers list:

 Open the terminal and type  ::

 # sudo su

 # visudo

Using the navigation keys, navigate to the bottom of the sudoers file which is now displayed in the terminal of current console.

Look for the below given line in the sudoers list file :

root ALL=(ALL) ALL

Add the following code just below the above line with your user_name instead of user:

user ALL=(ALL) ALL

Now press Ctrl+X and press Y when prompted to save ::


That’s it, your new user now has root privileges!


First Things To Know When You Install Linux

Hey Friends !!! After Installing any linux Distribution The First thing We should Do is to Update The Repositories And Upgrading the Existing Packages. This can be done By opening The Terminal in root mode and giving commands for update and upgrade.It can be done as Follows ::

# sudo su

# apt-get update

# apt-get upgrade

How To install A package in ubuntu or any other Debian Distributions ??

A debian package can easily be installed to a system by following normal installation procedure.

If the system is online and it’s repositories contain the package  . Open the terminal in root mode and insert following commands ::

#apt-get install package-name

If  The system is offline then Download the package file from internet and bring to the system where it has to be installed ::

The Downloaded package may be in .deb extension or a tar archive.For installation of .deb Files, just copy them to Home directory of current user and type the following ::

#ls -l              [To check if file exists]

#dpkg  -i  package_file_name.deb

For any dependency error you can correct the error by installing the dependent packages alone or if your system is online then using following command ::

#apt-get -f  install

#apt-get upgrade

++++++++++++++++++++By Ankit Pandey++++++++

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